The knee joint is one of the strongest and most important joints in the human body. Also known as the tibiofemoral joint, it is a synovial hinge joint formed between three bones: the femur, tibia, and patella with two rounded, convex processes (known as condyles) on the distal end of the femur meeting two rounded, concave condyles at the proximal end of the tibia.
This structure allows the lower leg to move relative to the thigh while supporting the body’s weight.
Other structures around the knee joint and involved in the various pathologies of the knee joint include: Articular hyaline cartilage, Meniscus, Joint capsule, Ligaments, Tendons and Bursae.
The overall prevalence of knee pain in the population is approximately 19%. The incidence increases steadily with age. Furthermore, the severity of the pain increases with age and a greater percentage have pain associated with disability.
Knee joint osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition of the joints seen in the elderly people and is characterised by loss of the articular cartilage, reduced joint space, periarticular
Ligament and Meniscal injuries
The ligaments of the knee joint can be divided into two groups; extracapsular ligaments and intracapsular ligaments. These ligaments connect the femur and tibia,
Bursae are fluid filled sacs present around the joint which facilitate movement and reduce friction at tendon-tendon and tendon-bone interfaces. There are series of bursae around