The ankle is a large joint made up of three bones: The shin bone (tibia) ,the thinner bone running next to the shin bone (fibula) and a foot bone that sits above the heel bone (talus). This joint allows up and down movement of the foot while the Subtalar joint which sits below the Ankle joint allows side-to-side movements of the foot.
Ankle joint is also surrounded by lots of ligaments, tendons and neurovascular bundles.
Foot and ankle pain affects approximately 20% of adults in middle and old age, with two-thirds reporting moderate or worse disability with daily activities. Ankle is also the most common site for development of Osteoarthritis.
Common conditions leading to Foot and Ankle pain
Bursae are fluid filled sacs present around the joint which facilitate movement and reduce friction at tendon-tendon and tendon-bone interfaces
Achilles Tendinitis/ Tendinopathy
Achilles tendon or Calcaneal tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue at the back of the lower leg which attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone.
Plantar fascia is a thick band of tissue present across the bottom of the foot and connects heel to the toes.
Ankle joint osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative condition of the joints seen in the elderly people and is characterised by loss of the articular cartilage
Nerve Entrapment syndromes/ Nerve Compression syndrome
A nerve is called entrapped when it losses its mobility and flexibility because of compression by the surrounding tissues.